On average, Tunisia’s sunshine exceeds 3,000 hours per year with some regions naturally having more hours than others do. Most regions in the south of the country have a solar exposure time of at least 3,200 hours per year, with peaks of 3,400 hours per year in the Gulf of Gabès (south-east). On the other hand[n1] , the minimum periods of sunshine in northern regions are between 2,500 and 3,000 equivalent full sunshine hours. Solar irradiation ranges from 1,800 kilowatt-hours (kWh) per m² per year in the north to 2,600 kWh per m² pa in the south.
Average global horizontal irradiation is between 4.2 kWh per m² per day in the north-west of Tunisia and 5.8 kWh per m² pd in the extreme south. Given these favourable conditions, the productivity of solar photovoltaic systems in Tunisia is very high. According to the Global Atlas of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), the annual power generation of solar photovoltaic systems varies between 1,450 kWh per kilowatt-peak (kWp) in the northwest region and 1,830 kWh per kWp in the extreme southeast.
Tunisia enjoys a high rate of sunshine, exceeding 3,000 hours per year. The distribution of sunshine hours by region is shown on the map below:
Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI) needs to be at least 2,000 kWh per m² pa to provide a viable energy yield. Direct solar irradiation in the south and most of the central region exceeds this typical value and can reach a DNI value of 2,300 kWh per m² pa.